Why do we need to keep an Exchange Server on-premises when we move to the cloud? – THR2145
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Why do we need to keep an Exchange Server on-premises when we move to the cloud? – THR2145


>>>GOOD AFTERNOON. MY NAME IS BRIAN REED. I’M AN EXCHANGE CERTIFIED MASTER AND I’VE SPENT SOME TIME ON THE EXCHANGE BOOTH FLOOR AND EVERY HE LAST FOUR DAYS HAS BEEN THIS QUESTION. SO, CLEARLY, THIS IS THE EVENT OF THE SHOW. OKAY? SO, THANK YOU FOR COMING. ALL RIGHT. SO, WHY DO I NEED TO KEEP AN EXCHANGE SERVER ON PREM WHEN I MOVE TO THE CLOUD? YOU READ THE DOCUMENTATION AND IT SAYS YOU LEAD ONE BEHIND. WHY? WHY DO I NEED TO LEAVE ONE BEHIND? WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT IT? CAN I GET RID OF IT? WELL, THE ANSWER IS ALL TO DO WITH A THING CALLED IDENTITY HYBRID, WHICH IS REALLY A TERM I MADE UP, OKAY? EXPLAINS IT VERY WELL. WE’RE ALL VERY FAMILIAR WITH THE IDEA OF EXCHANGE HYBRID. OKAY? SO, EXCHANGE HYBRID GIVES ME A SHARED EXPERIENCE BETWEEN EXCHANGE MAILBOXES ON PREMISES AND EXCHANGE MAILBOXES IN THE CLOUD. I CAN DO FREE BUSY. I CAN DO MAIL FLOW AND IT APPEARS TO BE INTERNAL. THERE ARE THINGS THAT HYBRID FROM EXCHANGE GIVES ME. BUT TO DO EXCHANGE HYBRID, I NEED TO SINK MY DIRECTORIES. I NEED TO DO IDENTITY HYBRID. AND IT’S IDENTITY HYBRID THAT IS THE KEY TO THIS BIG QUESTION. OKAY? WHEN I MAKE A MAILBOX IN EXCHANGE SERVER, I’M PLACING AN OBJECT IN A.D., THE USER OBJECT OR THE GROUP OBJECT AND I’M PLACING ATTRIBUTES AGAINST THOSE OBJECTS. IT’S THOSE ATTRIBUTES THAT DRIVE THIS PROBLEM. IT’S NOT THE MAILBOX DATA ITSELF, OKAY? SO, WHEN I MOVE TO EXCHANGE ONLINE, I’M MOVING MY MAILBOX DATA TO EXCHANGE ONLINE, BUT MY A.D. ATTRIBUTES, WELL, THEY’RE GOING UP TO AZURE A.D. AND THAT’S THE PROBLEM, WE COULD SAY, IN THIS SCENARIO, OKAY? WE MOVE ALL OF MAILBOXES TO EXCHANGE ONLINE. WE PUT ALL OUR MAIL DATA IN EXCHANGE ONLINE THAT HAS NOT CHANGED WHERE MY A.D. ATTRIBUTES ARE. MY A.D. ATTRIBUTES ARE STILL IN A.D. I’M STILL SINKING THEM USING AZURE A.D. CONNECT FROM A.D. TO AZURE A.D. AND THE ANSWER TO THE BIG PROBLEM IS CALLED SOURCE OF AUTHORITY. WHERE ACTUALLY CAN I CHANGE THOSE ATTRIBUTES? WELL, BECAUSE THEY’RE READ ONLY IN THE CLOUD, BECAUSE THE SOURCE OF AUTHORITY IS ON PREMISE, I CAN ONLY CHANGE THEM ON PREMISE, OKAY? AND SO, THAT’S A TERM YOU MAY BE FAMILIAR WITH, AND THAT’S THE CAUSE OF THE PROBLEM. SO, TAKE A LOOK AT A DIAGRAM THAT I’VE GOT HERE, I’VE GOT AN EXCHANGE SERVER ON PREMISE, IN BLUE AT THE BOTTOM, I’VE GOT MY ACTIVE DIRECTORY. THE OLD WAY, THE OLD WAY. FOR SOME OF YOU, THE CURRENT WAY OF DOING THINGS. AND UP IN THE CLOUD, UP HERE IN ORANGE, I’VE GOT MY EXCHANGE ONLINE . I’M JOINING THE SERVER, IT’S MANY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF SERVERS, BUT IT’S A SERVER. WHEN WE HAVE EXCHANGE ON PREMISE, WE HAVE EXCHANGE OUR SERVER AND OUR MAILBOX DATA IN EXCHANGE SERVER, AND THAT’S REPRESENTED BY THE THAT I HAVE THERE. WHEN I CREATE A NEW MAILBOX, WHAT I’M DOING, I’M PLACING STUFF IN ACTIVE DIRECTORY, AS WELL. I’M GOING TO DO SOME DRAWING ON HERE. I’VE LOST MY PEN, SO, I’M GOING TO USE MY FINGER. IF I HAVE A USER ACCOUNT. AND THAT’S A REALLY DREADFUL PERSON, THERE’S MY PERSON, OKAY, I CREATE AN INACTIVE DIRECTORY. THERE’S A BUNCH OF ATTRIBUTES ASSOCIATED WITH THAT PERSON. THAT MIGHT BE THEIR E-MAIL ADDRESSES. THAT MIGHT BE, IF THE MAILBOX IS MODERATED, THAT MIGHT BE THE PERMISSIONS ON THE MAILBOX. SOME OF THOSE ARE REALLY OBVIOUS, LIKE THE DISPLAY NAME OR THE E-MAIL ADDRESS. SOME OF THOSE ARE LESS OBVIOUS, THE MAIL TIP THAT I MIGHT WANT ON THERE. THERE’S A WHOLE RANGE OF ATTRIBUTES. AND — IS THAT GOING TO WORK? THANK YOU. COOL. SOMEONE’S GIVEN ME A PEN. THANK YOU. AND SO THESE ATTRIBUTES ARE IN A.D. SO, WHEN I HAVE A.D. CONNECT IN PLACE, AZURE A.D. CONNECT COMES INTO A.D., SYNCHRONIZES THOSE ATTRIBUTES AND PUSHES THEM UP TO THE CLOUD, IT PLACES THEM IN AZURE A.D. ONCE THEY ARRIVE IN AZURE A.D., THEY GET SYNCHED ACROSS TO A SEPARATE DIRECTORY THAT EXCHANGE ONLINE USES. IT’S CALLED EXODS. THE EXCHANGE ONLINE DIRECTORY. AND THAT PROCESS IS CALLED BACK SYNC. SO, WE HAVE ACCESS TO AZURE ACTIVE DIRECTORY, IT HAPPENS AUTOMATICALLY BEHIND THE SCENES. AND SO, UP IN EXCHANGE ONLINE’S DIRECTORY, THERE’S MY USER. AND ALL THOSE ATTRIBUTES. NOW, FOR EXAMPLE, ONE OF THOSE ATTRIBUTES ON PREMISE WILL REPRESENT, OR WILL RECORD THE FACT THAT THE MAILBOX ON PREMISE AND THE LOCATION OF THAT MAILBOX, THAT IT’S IN DATABASE ONE, FOR EXAMPLE. THAT ATTRIBUTE SYNCS ALL THE WAY UP TO EXCHANGE DIRECTORY. SO EXCHANGE ONLINE KNOWS I HAVE A MAILBOX ON PREMISE, BECAUSE IT DATABASE. LATER ON, IF I MOVE TO EXCHANGE ONLINE. MY MAILBOX IS IN EXCHANGE ONLINE, AND THE PROCESS OF MOVING IT IN A HYBRID HAS MADE SOME CHANGES. THE FIST CHANGE THAT IS DONE, WHAT WAS A MAILBOX, I’M GOING TO SAY MBX, WHAT WAS A MAILBOX ON PREMISE IS NOW A MALE USER. IN THE CLOUD WHAT WAS A MAIL USER IS NOW A MAILBOX. THE TYPE IS SWAPPED. THAT DOESN’T STOP THE FACT THAT THE OBJECT IS STILL A MASTERED INACTIVE DIRECTORY. AND SO, I HAVE TO RIGHT MY CHANGES TO ACTIVE DIRECTORY. SO, WHAT HAPPENS, I DIDN’T INSTALL MY LAST EXCHANGE SERVER. I DON’T NEED EXCHANGE HYBRID ANYMORE. I DON’T NEED FREE BUSY. THOSE NEEDS ARE GONE. WELL, IF I REMOVE MY LAST EXCHANGE SERVER, I’VE DONE NOTHING ABOUT IDENTITY HYBRID. I STILL HAVE IDENTITY HYBRID. I STILL HAVE THE SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM THAT IS CAUSING THIS QUESTION, AS DO, CAN I GET RID OF MY EXCHANGE SERVER ON PREMISE XES TO THE CLOUD. IF YOU GO TO THE CLOUD, YOU MAKE CHANGES, YOU GET ERRORS ABOUT OUTSIDE YOUR RIGHT SCOPE OR IT’S READ ONLY. THAT’S BECAUSE WE CAN’T CHANGE THOSE ATTRIBUTES IN AZURE ACTIVE DIRECTORY. WE CAN’T CHANGE THEM IN EXODS AND WE EXCHANGE THEM IN AZURE ACTIVE DIRECTORY. WE DO NOT HAVE A SUPPORTED WAY OF CHANGING THOSE ATTRIBUTES ON PREMISE IF WE DON’T HAVE AN EXCHANGE SERVER ON PREMISE. NOW, THIS EXCHANGE SERVER THAT I HAVE ON PREMISE, DON’T THINK OF IT LIKE AN EXCHANGE SERVER WHEN YOU HAD ALL YOUR MAILBOXES THERE. FOR EXAMPLE, I HAD A QUESTION EARLIER TODAY, EXCHANGE SERVER 2019 RECOMMENDED RAM, 128 GIG OF RAM. THIS IS A MANAGEMENT EXCHANGE SERVER. YOU COULD RUN IT WITH 8 GIG OF RAM, 12 GIG OF RAM. IT’S NOT A SERVER HOSTING AND RUNNING USER CONNECTIVITY FOR MAILBOXES. IT IS JUST FOR YOU, THE ADMINISTRATOR, TO ADMINISTER THESE ATTRIBUTES IN A.D. IF YOU GET RID OF THIS LAST EXCHANGE SERVER, YOUR ONLY WAY, REALLY, TO CHANGE THOSE ATTRIBUTES IS THINGS LIKE OPENING UP ACTIVE DIRECTORY USER COMPUTERS AND POKING AROUND IN THOSE ATTRIBUTES AND CHANGING THEM. NOW, YOU CAN DO THAT, OKAY? IT’S NOT GOING TO BREAK THINGS, BUT IT’S ONLY GOING TO WORK IF YOU GET IT RIGHT, AND THAT’S THE PROBLEM. I CAN GO INTO THE EXCHANGE ADMIN TOOL AND SAY, I WANT A NEW E-MAIL ADDRESS. IT WILL DO IT CORRECTLY. IF I GO INTO THE EDIT, I’VE GOT TO KNOW — I’VE GOT TO KNOW THE ATTRIBUTE TO CHANGE, I’VE GOT TO E TO CHANGE. I HAVE TO KNOW THE WAY ATTRIBUTE SHOULD BE STRUCTURED. SO, FOR EXAMPLE, I’VE GOT TO STARTS WITH CAPITAL SMTP AND I CAN ONLY HAVE ONE OF THEM. SO, THE RULES OF THE CONSISTENCY OF THE APPLICATION ARE NECESSARY TO KNOW, WHERE AS I DON’T NEED TO KNOW THAT IF I HAVE AN EXCHANGE SERVER DO MY MANAGEMENT FOR ME. I ALSO HAVE A BETTER SCRIPTING ENGINE, SO, I HAVE EXCHANGE MANAGEMENT SHELL. AND I HAVE A NICE POWER SHELL INTERFACE AND I KNOW HALF OF YOU HERE GO, OH, POWER SHELL, BUT IT’S BETTER THAN GET A.D. USER. DON’T TELL THE A.D. TEAM I SAID THAT, OKAY? FOR EXAMPLE, SOME OF THE ATTRIBUTES THAT ARE IMPORTANT. THIS IS NOT A LIMIT TO THE LIST OF ATTRIBUTES THAT ARE IMPORTANT. LET’S FLICK OVER TO MY PC. AND, OH, LOOK. WRONG SCREEN. I DIDN’T CHECK. THERE WE GO. LET’S BRING THAT OVER THERE. SO, I’VE GOT HERE REMOTE MAILBOX COMMAND AND I’VE GOT GET REMOTE MAILBOX AND THAT’S ALSO ON THE WRONG SCREEN, SO, LET ME JUST — THERE WE GO. OKAY, NOW, HOW MUCH OF THAT HAVE I GOT? ABOUT HALF? NO, A THIRD. THERE’S ABOUT A THIRD OF THE ATTRIBUTES THAT GET REMOTE MAILBOX GETS AND SETS. SO, I COULD SCROLL DOWN THAT PAGE AND I COULD HAVE A LOOK, THERE ARE ALL THINGS THAT ARE TO DO WITH E-MAIL. OKAY? THESE ARE ALL SET PROPERLY BY EXCHANGE SERVER. BUT IF YOU ARE DOING IT YOURSELF, WELL, WHAT DO YOU SET FOR ABOUT TRAGS MAILBOX IF YOU WANTED TO HAVE IT ARBITRATED? WHAT DO YOU SET FOR IN PLACE HOLDS, IN YOU WANT TO TURN ON RETENTION POLICY AND A HOLD? THE VALUES TO THESE MATTER, OKAY? AND SO, USING THE EXCHANGE TOOLS ARE THE SUPPORTED WAY OF DOING THAT. AND THAT’S JUST, YOU KNOW, IF I SCROLL UP TO THE TOP HERE, THAT’S JUST GET REMOTE MAILBOX. IT’S A REMOTE USER MAILBOX. THAT’S THE OBJECT I WOULD CREATE ON PREMISE, OKAY? IF I CLOSE THIS ONE , THAT’S NOT IT. THERE IS ALSO GET USER. THESE ARE ALL THE NON-MAIL ATTRIBUTES THAT ALSO ARE READ ONLY IN THE CLOUD AND ARE WRITTEN ON PREMISE. SO, YOU GET MARRIED, I WANT TO CHANGE YOUR DISPLAY NAME. YOUR FIRST NAME, YOUR LAST NAME. WHAT ELSE DO WE HAVE IN HERE THAT MIGHT BE IMPORTANT? PASSWORD SET, ACCOUNT NAMES. THOSE THAT SYNC TO THE CLOUD, THEY CAN ONLY BE CHANGED ON PREMISE. AND SO, THERE’S A MASSIVE LIST, AND IT BECOMES VERY COMPLICATED TO — TO DO THAT WELL YOURSELF. OKAY? SO, I’VE GOT A FEW THERE. LEGACY EXCHANGE DM. THAT’S A BRILLIANT ONE. TO KEEP REPLY ABILITY IN OUTLOOK. YOU HAVE TO KEEP THAT CONSISTENT ACROSS THE ORGANIZATION. SO, IT’S VERY IMPORTANT. THERE ARE SOME EXCEPTIONS, THOUGH, TO THE RULE, OKAY? USER PRINCIPLE NAME. IF YOU USE ADFS OR A THIRD PARTY THAT DOES FED RATED AUTHENTICATION, YOU CANNOT CHANGE FROM ONE FED RATED NAME SPACE TO ANOTHER WITHOUT GOING THROUGH A MANAGE NAME SPACE. SO, YOU NEED TO BE ABLE TO CHANGE UPN IN THE CLOUD. MOBILE NUMBER TURNS UP IN SOME MFA SCENARIOS. SO, THERE’S A HANDFUL OF ATTRIBUTES THAT THE SOURCE OF AUTHORITY CAN MOVE TO THE CLOUD. OKAY? FOR PARTICULAR SCENARIOS. SO, THE SOURCE OF AUTHORITY, WHEN YOU HAVE A.D. CONNECT INSTALLED, AZURE A.D. CONNECT INSTALLED. THE SOURCE OF AUTHORITY IS A.D. THEREFORE, YOU NEED SOMETHING TO MANAGE ALL THOSE A.D. ATTRIBUTES AND THAT’S AN EXCHANGE SERVER ON PREMISE. WHEN I SAY ON PREMISE, IT COULD BE A MACHINE IN PICK YOUR HOSTING COMPANY OF CHOICE. IT COULD BE A MACHINE IN AZURE, OKAY? SMALL AMOUNT OF RAM, NOT PARTICULARLY EXPENSIVE. IT DOESN’T HAVE TO BE A BIG BULKY SERVER WITH LOADS OF DISC SPACE THAT YOU WOULD HAVE HAD FOR AN EXCHANGE SERVER. OKAY. SO, NOT A LOT OF RAM AND DISK, OKAY, THEY’RE JUST MANAGEMENT SERVERS, OKAY? IT GIVES YOU A MANAGEMENT SHELL. IT GIVES YOU A UI. IT GIVES YOU A POWER SHELL INTERFACE FOR MANAGEMENTS. YOU’RE UPDATING A.D., IN A SUPPORTED WAY. THE ATTRIBUTES ARE CONSISTENT. FOR EXAMPLE, EXCHANGE WILL GIVE YOU AN E-MAIL ADDRESS POLICY, SO THAT YOU CAN GUARANTEE THAT YOUR USERS HAVE A STANDARD POLICY. EXCHANGE WILL ENSURE UNIQUENESS. YOU CAN’T HAVE A DUPLICATE E-MAIL ADDRESS. NONE OF THAT WILL BE VALID, OR GUARANTEEABLE, IF YOU DON’T USE THE EXCHANGE TOOLS, OKAY? THERE ARE NINE ATTRIBUTES THAT SYNC BACK FOR EXCHANGE HYBRID. THAT’S USEFUL TO KNOW JUST FOR REFERENCE, THEY SYNC BACK AND YOU CAN FIGURE THAT IN A.D. CONNECT BY ENABLING EXCHANGE HYBRID. THAT’S THINGS WHERE YOUR ARCHIVE MAILBOX IS AND A HANDFUL OF OTHER THINGS LIKE THAT. SO, THEY’RE USEFUL TO KNOW, BUT THE MAJORITY, WE SAW IT, PAGES AND PAGES AND PAGES, THEY GET SET IN A.D. ON PREMISE, OKAY, BECAUSE THAT’S WHERE YOUR SOURCE OF AUTHORITY IS. AND BECAUSE THEY GET SET THERE, HERE COMES THE QUESTION. CAN I REMOVE MY LAST EXCHANGE SERVER? NO. YOU CAN’T. WELL, YOU COULD, AND YOU COULD LOSE ALL THE STUFF WE JUST TALKED ABOUT AND YOU COULD DO IT ALL MANUALLY AND YOU COULD MAKE — YOU MIGHT MAKE MISTAKES ANYWAY, YOU’RE ALL GREAT ADMINISTRATORS, YOU’VE COME TO MY TALK, BUT THAT DOESN’T MEAN YOU HAVE MADE A GOOD CHOICE DOING THAT, AND YOU CAN UNDO THIS. YOU CAN PUT THOSE ATTRIBUTES BACK. BUT LEAVING AN EXCHANGE SERVER ON PREMISE FOR EXCHANGE IS GOING TO GIVE YOU THE BEST INTERFACE, THE EASIEST WAY OF DOING IT. AND THE PROBLEM, OF COURSE, IS, ON THE BOOTH, WHEN THE CONSULTANTS SAY, MOVE YOUR EXCHANGE TO THE CLOUD, WELL, GET OF YOUR EXCHANGE SERVERS ON PREMISE — LET’S DRAW AN ASTERISK ON THERE. BUT ACTUALLY, IF YOU HAVE THAT ONE THAT YOU NEED TO DO THE MANAGEMENT FOR, WELL, YOU CAN USE A MAIL RELAY, AS WELL. ALL YOUR PRINTERS AND SCANNERS AND MULTIFUNCTION DEVICES. YOUR APPLICATIONS AND YOUR SEQUEL SERVERS. WHAT ELSE DID WE HAVE ON THE BOOTH TODAY? YEAH, THAT’S ABOUT THE SCAN OF IT. THERE’S A WHOLE LUMP OF THINGS THAT SEND E-MAIL. WELL, YOU COULD EITHER HAVE A HOLE IN YOUR FIREWALL TO TALK DIRECTLY TO EXCHANGE ONLINE, OR, YOU GET ALL THOSE APPLICATIONS AND PRINTERS TALK TO YOUR EXCHANGE SERVER AND THE SERVER TALKS TO EXCHANGE ONLINE. MAYBE YOU HAVE A LOAD BALANCE IN FRONT OF IT AND TWO EXCHANGE SERVER ON PREMISE. SO, WE STARTED THIS QUESTION WITH, CAN I GET RID OF MY EXCHANGE SERVER? AND I’VE ANSWERED IT WITH NO, YOU NEED TWO. ALL RIGHT. WHAT YOU NEED EXACTLY DEPENDS ON YOUR BUSINESS, YOUR ORGANIZATION AND YOUR NEEDS, OKAY? BUT THE REAL ANSWER IS, DON’T GET RID OF YOUR LAST EXCHANGE SERVER. KEEP IT ON PREMISE, IT’S A MANAGEMENT INTERFACE, IT’S AN SMTP RELAY INTERFACE, AND THEY’RE ACTUALLY, THE REVERSE OF ALL THAT IS, WELL, I WOULD LIKE TO GET RID OF MY LAST EXCHANGE SERVER. WELL, IN THAT CASE, YOU HAVE TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF IDENTITY HYBRID, OKAY? SO, YOU TURN OFF AZURE A.D. CONNECT, YOU BREAK SYNCHRONIZATION. YOUR A.D. OBJECTS AND YOUR AZURE A.D. OBJECTS ARE UNRELATED, OKAY? SO, YOU CAN LOG INTO A.D. AND YOU CAN LOG INTO AZURE A.D., BUT THE PASSWORDS WILL DRIFT OVER TIME. THINGS LIKE IN TUNE AND HYBRID DEVICE JOIN AND ANYTHING ELSE CONDITIONAL ASPECT, A SURFACE DEVICE LIKE I’VE GOT HERE, A CAMERA IN IT. MFA CHALLENGE. I’M DOG MULTIFACTOR SECURER AUTHENTICATION BY MY DEVICE IS IN AZURE A.D., AS WELL AS BEING IN A.D. SO, IT’S NOT JUST THE EXCHANGE SERVER THAT’S THE PROBLEM. EXCHANGE SERVER IS A BIG PIECE OF THIS, BUT THERE ARE SO MANY OTHER THINGS IN THE CLOUD, THE BENEFIT BY HAVING DEVICE SYNCHRONIZATION AND OTHER ATTRIBUTE SYNCHRONIZATION THAT THE CONSIDERATION OF SAYING, WELL, LET’S CUT THE LINK AND GO CLOUD ONLY ACTUALLY IS A BIG — IT’S A BIGGER QUESTION, YOU KNOW? TO SEPARATE THEM OR HAVE AN EXCHANGE SERVER FOR ADMIN. SO, IT’S A SMALL BOX, YOU CAN LEAVE IT BEHIND, BUT YOU GET MUCH, MUCH BETTER ADMINISTRATION. SO, BETTER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS. YOU ARE STAYING SUPPORTED. IT’S MUCH EASIER TO UPGRADE EXCHANGE SERVER TO THE LATEST VERSION. SO, FOR EXAMPLE, YOU’RE RUNNING EXCHANGE 2010, YOU’RE GOING TO MOVE ALL YOUR MAILBOXES TO THE CLOUD, WHAT DO YOU DO? YOU MOVE THEM TO THE CLOUD AND UPGRADE EXCHANGE TO 2016. DON’T UPGRADE AND MOVE TO THE CLOUD. THAT’S A MUCH HARDER WAY OF DOING IT. IT’S MUCH EASIER TO UPGRADE THIS MANAGEMENT SERVER AND KEEP IT IN SUPPORT WHEN THERE’S NO MAILBOXES ON IT. AND SO ALL THE THINGS YOU LOOK AT IN THE PAST, YOU GO, EXCHANGE IS DIFFICULT, THAT’S HARD, WE ARE TO MANAGE IT AND IT’S COMPLEX — A LOT OF THAT IS NOT NECESSARILY TRUE WHEN IT’S JUST THE MANAGEMENT SERVER. WE HAVE A LOT TO GAIN BY DOING THIS WELL. THE DOCUMENTATION ON THIS IS IN THE LINK, SO, WHEN YOU GET THE SLIDES LATER ON, OR YOU CAN SEARCH FOR THIS, YOU’LL FIND THE DOCUMENTATION ON THAT, OKAY? BUT THAT TAKES ME TO THE END OF MY 20 MINUTES. PLEASE EVALUATE AND I HOPE YOU ENJOY THE LAST BIT OF THE CONFERENCE AND UNIVERSAL TONIGHT. IF YOU GOT ANY QUESTIONS, I’LL BE HERE FOR A BIT, AND I’LL BE ON THE BOOTH FOR A BIT, AS WELL.

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