Web hosting service
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Web hosting service

A web hosting service is a type of Internet
hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible
via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space
on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity,
typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space
and connectivity to the Internet for other servers located in their data center, called
colocation, also known as Housing in Latin America or France. The scope of web hosting services varies greatly. The most basic is web page and small-scale
file hosting, where files can be uploaded via File Transfer Protocol or a Web interface. The files are usually delivered to the Web
“as is” or with minimal processing. Many Internet service providers offer this
service free to subscribers. Individuals and organizations may also obtain
Web page hosting from alternative service providers. Personal web site hosting is typically free,
advertisement-sponsored, or inexpensive. Business web site hosting often has a higher
expense depending upon the size and type of the site. Single page hosting is generally sufficient
for personal web pages. A complex site calls for a more comprehensive
package that provides database support and application development platforms. These facilities allow customers to write
or install scripts for applications like forums and content management. Also, Secure Sockets Layer is typically used
for e-commerce. The host may also provide an interface or
control panel for managing the Web server and installing scripts, as well as other modules
and service applications like e-mail. Some hosts specialize in certain software
or services, which are commonly used by larger companies that outsource network infrastructure. Reliability and uptime The availability of a website is measured
by the percentage of a year in which the website is publicly accessible and reachable via the
internet. This is different from measuring the uptime
of a system. Uptime refers to the system itself being online,
however it does not take into account being able to reach it as in the event of a network
outage. A hosting provider’s SLAs may include a
certain amount of scheduled downtime per year in order to perform maintenance on the systems. This scheduled downtime is often excluded
from the SLA timeframe, and needs to be subtracted from the Total Time when availability is calculated. Depending on the verbiage of an SLA, if the
availability of a system drops below that in the signed SLA, a hosting provider often
will provide a partial refund for time lost. Types of hosting Internet hosting services can run Web servers. Many large companies that are not internet
service providers need to be permanently connected to the web to send email, files, etc. to other
sites. The company may use the computer as a website
host to provide details of their goods and services and facilities for online orders. Free web hosting service: offered by different
companies with limited services, sometimes supported by advertisements, and often limited
when compared to paid hosting. Shared web hosting service: one’s website
is placed on the same server as many other sites, ranging from a few to hundreds or thousands. Typically, all domains may share a common
pool of server resources, such as RAM and the CPU. The features available with this type of service
can be quite basic and not flexible in terms of software and updates. Resellers often sell shared web hosting and
web companies often have reseller accounts to provide hosting for clients. Reseller web hosting: allows clients to become
web hosts themselves. Resellers could function, for individual domains,
under any combination of these listed types of hosting, depending on who they are affiliated
with as a reseller. Resellers’ accounts may vary tremendously
in size: they may have their own virtual dedicated server to a colocated server. Many resellers provide a nearly identical
service to their provider’s shared hosting plan and provide the technical support themselves. Virtual Dedicated Server: also known as a
Virtual Private Server, divides server resources into virtual servers, where resources can
be allocated in a way that does not directly reflect the underlying hardware. VPS will often be allocated resources based
on a one server to many VPSs relationship, however virtualisation may be done for a number
of reasons, including the ability to move a VPS container between servers. The users may have root access to their own
virtual space. Customers are sometimes responsible for patching
and maintaining the server. Dedicated hosting service: the user gets his
or her own Web server and gains full control over it; however, the user typically does
not own the server. One type of Dedicated hosting is Self-Managed
or Unmanaged. This is usually the least expensive for Dedicated
plans. The user has full administrative access to
the server, which means the client is responsible for the security and maintenance of his own
dedicated server. Managed hosting service: the user gets his
or her own Web server but is not allowed full control over it; however, they are allowed
to manage their data via FTP or other remote management tools. The user is disallowed full control so that
the provider can guarantee quality of service by not allowing the user to modify the server
or potentially create configuration problems. The user typically does not own the server. The server is leased to the client. Colocation web hosting service: similar to
the dedicated web hosting service, but the user owns the colo server; the hosting company
provides physical space that the server takes up and takes care of the server. This is the most powerful and expensive type
of web hosting service. In most cases, the colocation provider may
provide little to no support directly for their client’s machine, providing only the
electrical, Internet access, and storage facilities for the server. In most cases for colo, the client would have
his own administrator visit the data center on site to do any hardware upgrades or changes. Formerly, many colocation providers would
accept any system configuration for hosting, even ones housed in desktop-style minitower
cases, but most hosts now require rack mount enclosures and standard system configurations. Cloud hosting: is a new type of hosting platform
that allows customers powerful, scalable and reliable hosting based on clustered load-balanced
servers and utility billing. A cloud hosted website may be more reliable
than alternatives since other computers in the cloud can compensate when a single piece
of hardware goes down. Also, local power disruptions or even natural
disasters are less problematic for cloud hosted sites, as cloud hosting is decentralized. Cloud hosting also allows providers to charge
users only for resources consumed by the user, rather than a flat fee for the amount the
user expects they will use, or a fixed cost upfront hardware investment. Alternatively, the lack of centralization
may give users less control on where their data is located which could be a problem for
users with data security or privacy concerns. Clustered hosting: having multiple servers
hosting the same content for better resource utilization. Clustered Servers are a perfect solution for
high-availability dedicated hosting, or creating a scalable web hosting solution. A cluster may separate web serving from database
hosting capability.. Grid hosting: this form of distributed hosting
is when a server cluster acts like a grid and is composed of multiple nodes. Home server: usually a single machine placed
in a private residence can be used to host one or more web sites from a usually consumer-grade
broadband connection. These can be purpose-built machines or more
commonly old PCs. Some ISPs actively attempt to block home servers
by disallowing incoming requests to TCP port 80 of the user’s connection and by refusing
to provide static IP addresses. A common way to attain a reliable DNS host
name is by creating an account with a dynamic DNS service. A dynamic DNS service will automatically change
the IP address that a URL points to when the IP address changes. Some specific types of hosting provided by
web host service providers: File hosting service: hosts files, not web
pages Image hosting service
Video hosting service Blog hosting service
Paste bin Shopping cart software
E-mail hosting service Obtaining hosting
Web hosting is often provided as part of a general Internet access plan; there are many
free and paid providers offering these types of web hosting. A customer needs to evaluate the requirements
of the application to choose what kind of hosting to use. Such considerations include database server
software, scripting software, and operating system. Most hosting providers provide Linux-based
web hosting which offers a wide range of different software. A typical configuration for a Linux server
is the LAMP platform: Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHPPython. The web hosting client may want to have other
services, such as email for their business domain, databases or multimedia services. A customer may also choose Windows as the
hosting platform. The customer still can choose from PHP, Perl,
and Python but may also use ASP .Net or Classic ASP. Web hosting packages often include a Web Content
Management System, so the end-user does not have to worry about the more technical aspects. See also
Dedicated hosting service Green hosting
Cloud hosting Shared hosting
References External links
Web hosting at DMOZ

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