Quantum Computing – The World of the Future – Extra History – #6
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Quantum Computing – The World of the Future – Extra History – #6


And so here we are at the end with one last question. How will quantum computing change our lives? if our desktops and our phones are not going to be quantum machines any time soon what will the quantum revolution mean to us? Richard Feynman once said you can’t truly model a quantum universe on a non quantum machine and the ramifications of that are profound. Optimists posit that quantum computing will revolutionize everything from engineering to medicine, consider the field of chemistry if we could model things more accurately at the molecular and quantum level we could better simulate how chemicals interact with the human body. We could better understand how the medicines we take get distributed at the lowest level. We could remove the veil from neurochemical interactions and come to a better grasp on how the complex chemistry of the brain really works. Or we could combine quantum computing with earth sciences and agronomy, over 1% of the world’s total energy is used just to produce fertilizer every year, this is because most of it is made through a complex and inefficient process that we haven’t really been able to improve on in the last hundred years. But with quantum computing we might be able to find a much more efficient catalyst and save the world literally millions of tons of natural gas every year and along those lines if we want to talk about the environment, right now we don’t have a really good catalyst for simply capturing carbon out of the air. When people talk about carbon capture and using it to lower the amounts of CO2 in our atmosphere right now they’re basically only talking about doing it with bulky systems at power plants themselves, if we could use quantum chemistry and quantum computing to help find a way to do this in the ambient environment it would be a major step forward towards solving our CO2 build-up crisis. Or in the material sciences realm one of the greatest quests of the 21st century is to create a superconductor that doesn’t require serious sub-zero temperatures to action superconduct. If this is possible, it will require an exploration of materials at the quantum level, something quantum computers will be far more suited to handle than today’s machines. Now more immediate realistic things that quantum computers will provide us our advances in areas like machine learning and data handling. Many of you have probably heard of MARI/O, it was an attempt to have a computer learn how to play Super Mario World simply by telling it that the further right it got the better it was doing and then just leaving it alone and letting it play Each time through it would just press some buttons and see how far to the right it got. Less successful attempts were discarded and more successful button presses were integrated into its next run, eventually it learned how to beat levels in Super Mario World That basically is machine learning but instead of running the first level of Mario a ton of times, most of the time modern computers are fed gigantic sets of data, told what success looks like and then set about trying to learn from any of the success cases. They find within the realm of data they’ve been given and eventually if all goes well, they produce algorithms. That should help us create or predict future success. City planning, cancer metastasizing, movements of the stock market… All of these are problems that we might be able to crack with machine learning, and heck we might be able to build cities that avoid getting major traffic jams, predict much more accurately when a patient’s cancer is going to spread or see a likely stock market crash far enough in advance to mitigate it, if we could really sort through, compare and analyze the data we have. And quantum computers are far better at this than the binary computers we have today. Sorry guys! But quantum computing doesn’t come without its dangers, I mean just consider security encryption Right now, most of our encryption from our email encryption to our private social media data to our Amazon shopping, All of that security hinges on one straightforward idea, they all depend on how difficult it is for modern computers to factor the product of two enormous prime numbers, the staggering computational requirements of that task are what make modern encryption secure. But quantum computing by its very nature makes that impossible problem: soluble. Quantum algorithms ability to assess entire ranges of possibility at once rather than having to check each possible solution individually. Changes everything and I’m not saying the unbreakable cryptography of today will become child’s play but it sure won’t be impossible anymore. Modern encryption won’t truly be secure once quantum computing becomes a reality which will expose our data to a whole new wave of security threats. Allowing governments to spy more efficiently not only on each other, but on us. And forcing us to rework how we do some of today’s most routine internet-based tasks Of course, at the same time it also opens up new possibilities for improving encryption creating a whole new field of quantum cryptography. Which could potentially allow for new approaches and enable brilliant minds to fundamentally change how we think about security in the modern age. Quantum computing also presents a massive threat to cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, most of today’s crypto currencies depend on a security protocol that could easily be overcome by quantum machines. And even if quantum computers weren’t used to actually overcome the systems that keep cryptocurrency secure, they could be used to mine cryptocurrency far faster than the fastest computers set to the task today potentially flooding the market and dramatically tanking the currency’s value. So thanks to those theories that Einstein and Bohr debated not a hundred years ago We will soon have safer and faster air travel with routes built to make it easier for humanity to connect across the globe, we’ll be able to detect cancer sooner through machine learning And solve even more complex problems of protein folding and DNA interactions to create yet more effective drugs. We’ll be able to better forecast the weather preventing deaths from flash floods and freak storms, and we will be able to better anticipate market crashes and potentially prevent the loss of hundred of thousands of jobs We will even be able to better understand the stars as quantum machines help us sort through the enormous pile of data our modern telescopes provide. Yet at the same time the quantum revolution may fatally wound our nascent cryptocurrencies. And create a new battleground for cybersecurity potentially putting everything for a military hardware to eBay purchases at risk. But all of these ideas are in their infancy. Right now, in Universities and laboratories across the globe people are building the algorithms that will make these things possible. Because to take advantage of the potential of quantum computing we have to think with quantum mechanics, we have to build whole new algorithms to tease out answers from the quantum superpositions or the space of possibility of our qubits. And even for problems we’ve already addressed through traditional means we will have to find new ways to address them ways that involve realigning our thinking and approaching computer science in a way that most engineers out there haven’t even begun thinking in. So will quantum computing revolutionize the world? Maybe. That’s largely on us. Can we learn to think in this way That was once so disturbing, so counterintuitive even to Einstein? Can we make the theoretical a reality and then build off that reality? Can we work with abstractions so complex that even the greatest minds couldn’t agree on what exactly they meant? And if we can do all that can we do it in a way that’s positive for Humanity? Can we do it in a way that doesn’t simply enable governments to more closely monitor us? Or allow advertisers to better target us with their ads? I don’t know. All I can say after having wrestled with this for so many weeks. Is that the potential is there, And that makes this a very exciting time, because knowing the potential exists one simple question remains… That’s right Zoe. Can we seize it?

100 Comments

  • Robert The Wise

    The breaking of classical cryptography is actually not that big of a deal. There are classically computable problems which can be a basis for a usable cryptography but are as hard to a quantum computer as they are to a classical one. And they are advanced enough that they are being rolled out today (see post quantum cryptography, latice based cryptography). If quantum computers will actually be a thing we will get a very exciting new brand of crypto utilizing quantum effects. That will be much more secure because quantum bits can't be cloned and because with pairs of distributed entangled qbits you can generate the same random numbers without communicating.

  • Nazareadain

    I'd like to see how game theory is applied to multiple competing AI capable of using quantum powered calculations competing against each other in the stock market. It's gonna be a shit show to figure out.

  • linguistically oversight 86

    here's something to think about I'm going to introduce you all to my friend he's been removing carbon from the atmosphere for millions of years now his name is the humble tree love the tree embrace the tree plant trees specially designed trees that just gobble up extra carbon

  • linguistically oversight 86

    yeah I mean it could present a problem to cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin unless you create a cryptocurrency based on quantum entangled particles then only the particles entangled during the moment of the creation of that note would be able to get access to that no also using the fact that to observe a quantum State changed as a quantum State you could use that right there that principle to secure your data using let's see a single photon serving as a bit single one and the lack of a photon as a zero send it like Morris code if somebody splices and physically to the line and observes the information it destroys it
    and the best part about this is that if you have quantum computing on a level that people are able to afford you now have a way to create these quantum entangled particles not physically but in a simulation using the quantum computer this would allow you to not necessarily have a physically entangled particle but to use a simulation of one

  • Nik

    I still fail to understand How all of the data on quantum computer can be processed at once. Arent qubits computational units rather than storage? If they are both, whats their data density?
    And if "in wave" processing is so effective, why does amount of bits even matter?

    There are so many videos about QC, but unfortunately all of them talk about What and not How.

  • crazieeez

    For those who fact checks saying this video is wrong scientifically, you need to fact check yourself. Carbon Dioxide is a bent molecule at low temperature. If you ionize carbon dioxide, you lose electron, once you lose an electron or two in a molecule, the geometry or electron distribution on the molecule gets distorted. The problem we have today is our computer is not fast enough to model a carbon dioxide electron distribution in ionized 1 electron case, or 2 ionized electron case … we only approximate the solution (geometry wise) through perturbation theory (loosely use). We like it if we can find exact solution with the advent of quantum computer to see if it matches with data. Our experiment with dipole moment shows that it matches theory to the 9th decimal place, then quantum theory breaks down. Quantum theory is STILL INCOMPLETE. We don't know once we reach Planck scale if atomic size quantum behavior still holds true.

  • Hanako Fairhall

    "We could remove the veil from neuro chemical interactions and better understand how the complex chemistry of the brain really works"

    …That could mean "Take this medication, it might work, or it might cause a seizure and kill you…oh, and it won't do anything good for…at least a week, in fact, you might feel worse" situations would be a thing of the past….that'd be great!

  • Overhazard

    Quantum Cryptography, eh? I wonder if that might be what it takes to finally crack the Voynich Manuscript, a book that has eluded every codebreaker, including the FBI's ultrafast computer designed specifically to crack codes, for over 600 years.

    P.S. Also, I'm a little late, but the Periodic Table seen at 6:25 is outdated. Every element up to oganesson (118) has been officially named. Your periodic table is also missing nihonium (113), moscovium (115), and tennessine (117).

  • pandora50

    No form of encryption is totally unbreakable for one simple reason there will always be a need to break it. Nope since we as a species have free will and are a distructive desease on the planet.

  • Gábor Ócsai

    So many times we believed something would solve everything. Allways failed. Quanrum computing will be the same. We need more brains at work more than quantum computing…

  • Daniel De Villa

    For all the inaccuracies and such this kind of teaching comes with, I really wish this kind of general, conceptual approach to science was more commonly used in teaching instead of the very problem-solving oriented style used by most sources. Seeing the overarching view of everything makes swallowing the technical stuff far easier.

  • Death Knight

    Paused @1:58 some scholars argue that increased levels of co2 are actually preventing the next Ice age. Would love to hear Ur views about that in a possible future video. Huge fan of Ur work

  • Donut Dude

    5:50 this part isn't true due to the fact if 1 person can do it then anyone can, it just means the original miners need a hardware upgrade, the only way it could crash the price is if their way only 1 person quantum mining and that person sold all the coins that were earned straight away even then the Algorithm will get much harder to make sure it still takes 10 mins for the Quantum Computer to solve the problem

  • Dustin Rodriguez

    You're overselling the possibilities of enhanced computational ability. Go read about chaos theory and fundamental limits of computation for a bit. Nonlinear systems (basically everything natural) aren't just hard to predict, they're impossible to predict. Quantum computers can't solve the Halting Problem or predict chaotic systems.

  • filippe999

    I have read about a new cryptography method that's supposedly impervious to quantum computers.
    It relies on the idea of having the data be in an array of a massive n-dimensional matrices, something along the lines of 100+ dimensions and the key itself would be the correct way to navigate this maze

  • Robert bubák

    Encryption isn't in fact reliant on this division to prime numbers. But sadly i'm not smart enough in maths to understand this cryptographical insanity.

  • MRGiacalone2005

    As I understand It even if such computer were used to mine BTC the algorithm would increase difficulty to keep the rate of production constant, hence avoiding a "flood on the market". (5:54)

  • David Hoelzer

    Ok… Great videos… but it's not true that "all of today's encryption" depends on factoring integers. This furthers the fallacy that all encryption fails when QC get to a sufficient size. It is absolutely true, however, that as QCs grow in size, certain classes of encryption are almost instantly defeated. Generally, symmetric key encryption is not automatically defeated.

  • renerocksai

    OMG. I like EC. But "mining cryptocurrency much faster …" leading to "flooding the market" is just bullshit. Proof-of-Work mining algorithms adjust their difficulty to the capabilities of the network. In BitCoin, for instance, it is part of the protocol that a new block is mined about every ten minutes, on average in a 2 weeks period. The protocol does not allow for new blocks being generated every millisecond, at least not for long. On top of that: all other participants of the network wouldn't be able to keep up with that rate of new incoming blocks…. If such flooding was possible, it would have happened with the advent of GPU mining, and a second time with the advent of ASIC miners, each of which beat the previous technology by order of magnitudes in computing power.

  • gabagandalfoftheweed

    So much optimism at the end… do you remember the last time a new invention was used to make this world a better place?

    Yeah, me neither.

  • Konsistently K

    Yes, but quantum computing also hangs on the idea of entanglement, which in turn can be used to transmit data and is unbreakable

  • taekwonkey

    Technology has always been there since the dawn of humanity. Technology doesn't have any moral standards or solutions to humanity. Whether we decide a good or bad use of technology is all political. Not talking about simply voting. We must realize everything we do everyday has political implications and act accordingly with that awareness.

  • RandomNumber

    Great series, but it was kind of funny to see the tree approving of LESS CO2. Recall that CO2 is what plants FEED on and what we pump into greenhouses. Plants LOVE CO2 and want MORE, not less — CO2 is colorless and odorless; it's not a pollutant, it's plant food. 😉

  • Toefuy Kon

    I will being using the " f" word in this comment. Regardless of the failures or wins of quantum mechanics, what stood out to me in this video was the fears of miss use of probable quantum mechanics. That is not a mechanical problem, it is a humanistic problem. How nice it will be when we stop trying to take advantage of one another and just live trying to make our world better not needing to worry if someone is trying to do something "evil" to us. So from this point of view I say to you "You are the change, the difference, and the evolution of man in this reality. From this point of now make your moves with open and clear intentions so there are no hidden variations or variables." The future is now. When we look at it , it is a wave. When we make a decision, it is a particle, you know, when we bring it in to reality. This is my "feeling" on this. Communication is key. Live with a open ; heart, agenda, vibe, intention, mind, perspective, and the future will be clear. Be humble. ?⚛️?

  • nathaniel nizard

    It is mainly used at research level at the moment. There are some options if you want to get ahead and try it, there is a microsft language and some python frameworks, you can build with it using abstractions to simulate it at first! Being a developper myself I don't imagine lots of application for it except caculation yet, it may have some uses for things related to the blockchain because of that. Sadly it's not my primary field of expertise and I may be too busy to dig into it as the IT world shifts constantly, but it looks interresting and doesn't look overwhelming to me either. Maybe if I have time I'll try to incorporate some of quantum processing at some point for the backend on one of my personnal git gud projects.

  • RedwoodTheElf

    We don't need to lower the CO2 in the atmosphere. If the atmosphere was represented by 2000 M&Ms, only ONE of those M&Ms would be CO2. That's dangrously low for the health of plants. Use a different example. There IS no "CO2 Buildup Crisis" – and it is ironic that you used a tree as your example, considering that trees would be the first things to die if you foolishly tried to eliminate CO2 from the atmopshere.

  • ALEXANDRE TORRES

    Ok, I miss computer science here. Quantum computers are (limited) nondeterministic machines, eletronical computers are deterministic machines. This was all described by the math of Alan Turing (Why he is not in this video?). There are a class of problems called NP-Complete that are very hard to deterministic machines, but easy to nondeterministic machines. This kind of hardness is used by most security systems today. But here is the thing that people still don't know: what can you break with "x" qubits? an infinite (or large enought) qubits computer would break all NP-Complete problems in polinomial time, meaning that this kind of cryptography would cease to exist. In the other hand, each algorithm will be affected in a distinct way, and someone would have to figure out if a quantum computer with fewer qubits than necesary to break a larger key is of any use.

  • Victor Ross

    Sadly, this last installment is just another commercial for quantum computing. If people actually think all these marvelous things are going to come out of it, consider that Murphy's Law and greed are still the most powerful laws in the universe. It'll help in some ways, but not as miraculous as this video predicts. Besides, there are plenty of world-changing technologies out there (purposely shelved because they threaten big business and certain governments). Humans are great at holding back progress for personal gain. As for A.I., semi-smart A.I. is probably fine. But super-smart A.I. is dangerous. There should be limits on both how 'intelligent' an A.I. can be and how much power an A.I. should be given. To anyone working on Artificial Intelligence research, don't forget to include a kill switch in case it gets out of hand.

  • Al Nevsky

    More than a decade ago, I met a young man outside a downtown convenience store, near the university I was attending at the time, who demonstrated a quantum computer to me and a small set of others. This charming contraption immediately entangled my mind, for it was so oddly simple yet, at the same time, immensely mysterious. In appearance, it resembled a stiff, square, flat surface, atop which were three small opaque hemispherical objects. I watched as he tried to demonstrate his device to one of the others. He would place a small bit of cognitive information, I now surmise it might have been some sort of proto-qbit, beneath one of the hemispheres. After a masterful manipulation of curvilinear motions and variable momentum changes upon these controls, he then challenged one skeptical onlooker to select the correct outcome. Nevertheless, this participant failed to select the proper register for the bit. They tried this several times with the participant failing most of time, yet as I watched intently, every time the operator revealed the outcome I had managed to get it right 100% of the time. It was as if my consciousness was experiencing that 'spooky interaction at a distance' with that otherwise elusive qbit. Even after the other participants interest had bottomed out, and the demonstrator queried me directly, I continued to select the outcome with flawless synchronicity. I thought this especially cool because each time the increasingly amazed experimenter was able to get his machine to work as intended, he would reward me with a dollar. After several more successes the experimenter, himself amazed to disbelief that his device could work so well, he exuberantly proposed a wager to which I happily obliged. Needless to say, this small change in events must have modified the probability function in some way, as I had immediately and inexplicably managed to select a false outcome.
    It just seems strange how such an insignificant change in thinking could so profoundly affect the outcome.

    Such, also, is quantum computing.

  • Adam Richard

    I was just wondering… Will Quantum computing also wash away all of Humanity's sins as it dies on the cross? Because listening to all the things is supposedly will solve, that's about the only one missing on the list.

  • Quod Magnus Zerum

    If entangled quantum particles were actually right next to each other in one of the 8 dimensions, but across the galaxy in our 4D experience, would the speed of light actually be exceeded, or just circumvented?

  • Crim son

    Add Quantum infront of whatever you want and say it will be an improvement. We will use Quantum Drinking to get Quantum Drunk faster.

  • Braeden Young

    How about an Ansible? Using quantum entanglement to make a device to transmit data from one point to another instantaiously, even through interstellar distances, without any possiblility of intercepting the signal. Giving us real-time remote control over unmanned deep-space exploration, perfectly secure lines of commuicaion, and computing between muliple quantum quntum computers working in tandem. Think its possible?

  • mwnciboo

    Quantum computers are for Optimisation problems. YOU ARE WRONG ABOUT ENCRYPTION – Assymmetric encryption is screwed but Symmetric encryption is resistant to Quantum Cracking, but even then we have post-quantum cryptography which is even better and utilises quantum effects to provide even better no repudiation at the Handshake point for comms etc. View someones key and it automatically changes….Quantum is mind-bending when you get into it.

  • Owl the Molfar

    OK. Lady and Gentleman, I want to share with you some even more brain melting information I read recently. So, what everything consist of? Elementary particles. What parametrs they have, which describe them? Impulse, energy, etc. But what are they? What phisical sence they have? As we know now – THEY DO NOT HAVE ANY, THEY ARE JUST NUMBERS. All reality is just numbers!

  • caslaBBalsac

    Does quantum intanglement mean we can hope to, say, send a probe to Proxima Centauri, and have INSTANT communication with it? Instead of, you know, 4 year delayed?

    If this DOES prove to be the case, that's awesome.

  • solal flechelles

    I am very disappointed with that serie. You spent 4 episodes explaining the basis of quantum mechanics, which is great, but at no point did you actually explain how quantum computing works.
    It doesn't help that even in the stuff you do explain there's a lot of inaccuracies, but I thought it would get better as you start going into quantum algorithms, stuff that you would have a good grounding in… except you never even discussed them :/

  • Tijs Maas

    Nice series on qc! The impact of QC on cryptocurrencies is being overestimated.

    QC mining is not faster. Mining uses a hashing function, which is irreversible, even with postquantum cryptography.

    Transactions are also quite safe: Use your address once (guidelines), then a quantum signature attack can only be performed after submitting a transaction and before it is added to the next block. (Confirmation)

    While there are already proposals to mitigate this problem, they are currently not relevant, since 1 no such attack is possible in the next decade or so, and 2 it increases the size of the signatures.

  • Krishna Batabyal On KSB GAMING

    I'm just waiting for a computer to persuade my mom to let my play 1 more hour rather than study 3 more hours… :/

  • DIMITRIS DASKALAKIS

    hello there you guys big fan of your videos could you plz do a series of videos about physics from the very begging ( from the aristotle era) until today ? pretty plz

  • Kirby Maylish

    As far as that last question about quantum security goes, shouldn't we ditch passwords? That seems like the most logical solution. Make your password all possible passwords in the universe (or more realistically all accessable information), and then make only one probability lead to the resulting data that is desired, which could also be everything(or again all accessable information). Don't hide the answers people want to prey on, give them everything and tell a computer everything is possible. Only you will know the truth, but that isn't a property of the computers that are trying to figure this out. I could also be completely wrong about this. (Haha funny quantum joke.)

    Edit: I also may or may not like my own comments to get discussions rolling along.

  • J miktutt

    6:10 or make the blockchain system more eco-friendly by reducing cost/power consumption? Maybe it wouldn't work like that because the whole idea is based on average difficulty amongst clients?
    Edit: 06:56 and bummer. I'd delete the comment, but….. Doesn't seem right.

  • singingstranger

    Another issue with our current method of machine teaching is of course the extreme bias of data that we feed the computer to produce algorithms. From minor, even at times silly results (an algorithm that is supposed to tell a person's sex just by their eyes was actually just trained to look for make up) to dangerous outcomes (racist bias in software that pins PoC and racially profiles them), many things are possible just because of the inherent bias in data, making our algorithms sometimes unusable or at least deeply flawed.

  • BlackAngel

    I can't tell you how many times I've watched this and every time I feel odly insiped to be a part of the amazing progression of the human race..

  • Liam Naddell

    6:04, bitcoin specifically(I think), modifies itself to always make challenges take 10 minutes or so. So if quantum computers come out and can totally wreck sha, bitcoin will be fine. Also, until someone comes up with a quantum algorith for ecdsa, i'm going to have a hard time believing in the quantum crypto apocalypse

  • Brendan Hart-Nutter

    Was there ever a lies episode produced for this series? There were several questionable statements made and I couldn't find any lies episode looking through videos.

  • Mateusz Bartnik

    Most modern classical computers also have multithreading – they can look at 4 or 8 things at a time, but not as much as quantum computers.

  • Genesis23OPB

    a quantum computer that can predict stock market crashes will be used for insane profits of a few bankers while the rest of the world burns, as it was done before. it wouldnt really change anything.

  • James Guertin

    One of the questions that I wish this series was able to answer is: Will Quantum Computing allow us to clone dinosaurs?

  • 3l H4ck3r C0mf0r7

    By far the smallest and closest to home use of quantum computing I can think of is computer graphics. NVIDIA, Disney Pixar and Hollywood all have more than enough reasons to buy quantum technologies and implement them into their stuff once they become reliable enough to be, well, reliable despite the outside noise (I'm pretty sure loopy procedures like raytracing and several rasterizing and shading techniques can be quantumized quite nicely. Tesla could probably benefit from building quantum computers into their self-driving vehicles as well. This is the chance to get big AIs off the cloud and into autonomous, offline devices, so it's a great option to have for smaller or privacy-focused organizations wanting to embrace AI. File lossless and lossy compression algorithms can also benefit heavily from a quantum computer's parallelism. Video encoding could reach unparalleled performance with it too). Quantum GPUs (and their general purpose extensions) are by far the most likely quantum processors the general population will get. And that means it may just not remain exclusive to multi-million-dollar entities, which is exactly how cryptography will afford to harden itself, to prevent both normal people from breaking through using their graphics hardware and the governments and businesses from breaking through as well.

    Just remember to change all your passwords when the first few major services featuring quantum encryption roll out, and get all your vital data deleted from services that still use classic encryption by then.

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