Quantum Computing 2019 Update
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Quantum Computing 2019 Update


Welcome to another video from ExplainingComputers.com,
and to my annual quantum computing update. Specifically in this video, I’m going to
provide a brief overview of quantum computing, I’m going to report on some recent developments,
and I’m going to highlight a potential future killer application. Or in other words, I’m going to address
the three key questions “What is quantum computing?”, “Who is creating it?”,
And “why do we need it in the first place?” Conventional or “classical” computers
are built from billions of transistors that are turned ‘on’ or ‘off’ to represent
a value of either ‘1’ or ‘0’. In turn, this allows classical computers to
store and process data using ‘binary digits’ or ‘bits’. In contrast, quantum computers process information
using ‘quantum bits’ or ‘qubits’ that can be represented by superconducting electronic
circuits. Due to the strange laws of quantum mechanics,
qubits can exist in more than one state — or ‘superposition’ — at exactly the same
point in time. This allows a qubit to assume a value of ‘1’,
or ‘0’, or both of these numbers simultaneously. In turn, this enables a quantum computer to
process a far higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. In addition to assuming superpositions, qubits
can become ‘entangled’. ‘Entanglement’ is another quantum mechanical
property, and means that the state of one qubit can depend on the state of another. This is useful and powerful, as it means that
observing one qubit can reveal the state of its unobserved pair. Creating, sustaining, manipulating and error
correcting qubits is very hard indeed. But significant progress does continue to
be made. So let’s now turn to the work of today’s
quantum computing pioneers. One of quantum computing’s trailblazers
is IBM with its initiative called IBM Q. Since 2016, IBM has provided access to cloud-based
quantum hardware, and in January 2019 unveiled the IBM Q System One, which it describes as
the first integrated quantum computing system for commercial use. Also advancing quantum computing are Intel,
who in January 2018 announced a quantum processor called ‘Tangle Lake’. According to the company’s website, Intel
is targeting production-level quantum computing within ten years, and expects the technology
to start to enter its “commercial phase” around 2025. Google is also developing quantum hardware
and software, and in June 2019 Hartmut Neven, the director of its Quantum Artificial Intelligence
Lab, reported that the power of Google’s quantum processors is now increasingly at
a doubly exponential rate. This has already been termed “Nevan’s
Law”, and suggests that we may reach the point of quantum supremacy — where a quantum
computer can outperform any classical computer — by the end of 2019. Also in the game, in February 2019, Microsoft
announced the Microsoft Quantum Network to advance quantum computing, which formalized
a previous coalition of partnerships. In May 2019, Microsoft also reported
that it will open source its Quantum Development Kit, which includes its Q# quantum computing
programming language and compiler, as well as quantum computing simulators. Another long-term quantum computing pioneer
is D-Wave Systems, which in October 2018 launched a cloud-based, quantum application environment
called Leap. This provides real-time access to a D-Wave
2000Q quantum computer, and in March 2019 was expanded to provide access in Japan and
across Europe. Other quantum computing pioneers include Alibaba
in China, who in March 2018 launched its ‘superconducting quantum computing cloud’. Also offering a “quantum cloud platform”
are Rigetti, with other pioneering quantum computing pure-plays including Quantum Circuits
and IonQ. Hopefully, what this brief summary has demonstrated,
is how quantum hardware, software and service provision are now advancing at pace. It’s therefore wise for us to question just what
quantum computers are going to be used for Quantum computing’s first killer application
is likely to be quantum molecular modelling, also known as quantum chemistry. And this probably sounds rather abstract,
rather removed from traditional, everyday computing. But, if you give me a few minutes, I’ll
explain why quantum molecular modelling will help to move computing into a New Age. Now, molecules are multiple atoms bonded together. So, for example, a water molecule contains
two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Or, a caffeine molecule contains eight carbon
atoms, together with ten hydrogen, four nitrogen, and two oxygen atoms. So, why am I telling you this? Well, even though a caffeine molecule for
example looks fairly simple, a conventional computer cannot model cannot model one at
the quantum level. Now clearly, we do have software that allows
us to build models of molecules — such as the MolView package we’re looking at right
now. And, some existing packages can also simulate
the basic chemistry of how molecules behave and interact. But none can accurately model the sub-atomic
particles inside each atom due to the extraordinary number of data possibilities that would be
involved. And, this means that we’ve yet to build
an accurate simulation of any molecular system using a conventional computer, and we probably
never will. Because molecules are quantum in nature,
the hardware required to simulate them also needs to be quantum. And this is why quantum computers will become
so important. We also already know that quantum molecular
simulation can work. For example, in 2017, some IBM engineers reported
in Nature that they’d successfully used a quantum computer to model a beryllium hydride
molecule. And then, in July 2018, this paper was published
in the journal Physical Review X, again reporting on success using quantum computers to run
molecular simulations that could not be run on a conventional, on a classical computer. There’s also now a start-up company in Germany called HQS Quantum Simulations, which is developing software for the quantum simulation of molecules
and processes in order to “disrupt the way in which specialty chemicals, materials, agrochemicals and drugs are developed”. Today, we cannot accurately simulate what
is going on in a cup of coffee. And yet, ten or twenty years from now, we
could be using quantum computers to run very complex molecular simulations. And this would transform our understanding
of chemistry, physics biology. And in turn it would change our practice of
engineering and medicine. Imagine in the future if you got ill, a future
doctor or AI could build a quantum simulation of your whole anatomy, your whole body. And then also build quantum simulations of
different drugs, and test those drugs in a quantum simulation of your body. And they could maybe test thousands of drugs
over a simulated period of time of many weeks, and they could do all of that in a few microseconds. That would be truly revolutionary. And it won’t just be medicine. We’ll be able to use quantum molecular simulations
to simulate things like the climate, predict the weather, things like that, develop new
materials, test out new ways of building things, all those kinds of things. So, it is the potential to use quantum computers
to build accurate simulations of the physical world, that will make them so revolutionary. To put what I’ve just been talking about
in context, let’s turn to a model that I call the Five Ages of Computing. This was introduced in my book “Digital
Genesis”, and signals how the initial historical phases of “Early Computing” and “Personal
Computing” had a focus on using computers to perform computation. But then, around 20 years ago, we entered
the “Network Computing Age”, in which computing has additionally been focused on
communication. However, today, we are entering the “Cognitive
Computing Age”, with the focus expanding once more to include the use of computers
for prediction, in addition to communication and computation. Cognitive computing is primarily associated
with the rise of artificial intelligence. And, certainly, it will be technologies like
neural networks will allow computers to learn from sample data and to predict appropriate
responses when presented with data they’ve not encountered before. However, as I’ve just discussed, quantum
molecular modelling will also prove an important aspect of the Cognitive Computing Age. This is because quantum simulations are likely
to be used to vastly increase our understanding — or our cognition — of the physical world,
and in turn to improve our lives based on quantum predictions of how complex molecular
systems will behave. Looking further ahead, the final computing
age of “Cyborg Fusion” involves the physical synthesis of human beings and machines. This I’ve discussed in a video on my ExplainingTheFuture channel, and is likely to rely on quantum molecular simulation to assist in the redesign
and proactive evolution of ourselves. Quantum molecular modelling is very different
to most of today’s computing applications. This said, across history, the most revolutionary
new technologies have always been used to achieve new things, rather than to do old
things in new ways. And, it’s therefore very reasonable to predict
that most of tomorrow’s quantum computers will spend most of their time executing quantum algorithms that most people today cannot even imagine. If you want to know more about the future
of computing, you can look in my book “Digital Genesis”. But now that’s it for another video. If you’ve enjoyed what you’ve seen here
please press that “like” button. If you haven’t subscribed, please subscribe. And I hope to talk to you again very soon.

100 Comments

  • Todayi1itall

    How do you read the quantum state of a single particle? Does that violate the Heisenberg uncertainty principle?

    I know they can do it on Star Trek because they have the Heisenberg Compensator on the transporter.

  • Retro Boob

    QC is impossible. Deal with it. QM is a metaphysical theory. You can create a physical machine that can produce a metaphysical phenomena. It is very easy to understand.

  • F. G-Lacoste

    4:00 …It is suggested we should achieve quantum supremacy by the end of 2019 ???? (in 3 months)
    Not sure what is Neven's Law but I am skeptical !!! Is it a typo or something ???
    —–
    Finally … no it is not a typo, but it is highly debattable !!!

    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/a-new-law-suggests-quantum-supremacy-could-happen-this-year/

  • SydneyRadio2UE

    The distance between entangled particles is irrelevant, no matter how far apart they are. Nanometers or light years, its all he same. Information is shared instantly, between the entangled particles. That's so mind boggling to me, that this actually occurs. Truly spooky action at a distance!

  • anty

    wait so by like 2040 my hospitals just gonna keep a little digital clone of me? that's some black mirror stuff. hope lil quantum me doesn't feel too terrible living in a hard drive for the rest of existence. i demand they give him daily hot chocolate and a dog.

  • Grimeto

    Just imagine the possibilities for predicting human behavior and controlling it… I doubt society is ready to handle the speed of technological advancements.

  • Electricity taster

    If quantum computing can simulate our entire bodies, does that not also include the electrons going through our brains, and if so, couldn't they use that to decode our thoughts? If so, I could get my amazon deliveries the minute I click buy because amazon knew I was going to do so and had already delivered it.

  • Mike Dunigan

    "what can you do with a quantum computer that can help me right now?"
    If we use it right we could tell you when and where hurricanes and tornadoes will strike with INSANE levels of accuracy. Does that sound useful to you normal people?
    Imagine knowing that in 4 days what paths the tornado will take. Or if the storm will scrape along a coast, or punch deep into the land.
    That's the most visceral impact you will see. That says nothing to the new materials we will be able to fabricate. Imagine something we could use to replace plastic or steel being discovered and how that would impact your every day life.
    Science played with numbers and looked at the sun, and now we have solid data storage(your usb dirves and smart phones) because of quantum tunneling being understood. We know the layman doesn't understand, you don't need to.
    Just stop asking us if the living hot light that moves will hurt you. Yes, fire hot. No touch. Make cook food, is good. The cavemen of today are aggravating.

    Stop asking science "How will it help me now?" And start asking "How can I help you now?"

  • Doug Coulter

    Gee, no mention of Shor's algorithm breaking all public key crypto and signing – all secrets (including stored ones) now cracked, and that's with a rather small quantum machine compared to the "woo" stuff with proteins and medicine –
    Linear prediction's been around a long time. Neural nets now so non-linear prediction, but noobs always overfit and confuse turtles with guns. Has nothing to do with cognition or sentience – it's just the front-end processing, called pattern matching. I normally recommend this channel as being dead on about most things but this is the first really off one I've seen here. Sorry Chris, this is woo futurism, the sort that never comes true the way the guy selling the book predicts.

  • Aaron Lucas

    Wait, when a quantum computer quantum models a caffeine molecule, isn't it making a caffeine molecule? Are we one step away from a machine that can make anything, like the ones on Star Trek and The Orville?
    I know it isn't, but it sorta is.

  • Anaussie

    Interesting video. There is still a massive question regarding Quantum Computers that has yet to be unsolved.

    This being, will they run Doom?

  • 0menchild

    This is my third video I watched… I've concluded that you are a true champ at explaining! It would be shamful for me not to subscribe!

  • Justwannalogon

    I'm a little confused how you think a quantum computer will predict how medications interact when both will employ large degrees of uncertainty. The model will be completely different than the body if it's just a simulation of the molecules, given the uncertainty principle – the same thing that makes debugging quantum code virtually impossible. You never know when a quantum tunnel will occur. Thus is seems much more likely we will have better predictions in conventional two bit computer systems.

  • Maxim C.

    Let me just point out: we do not require quantum computers to solve humanity's current biggest problems (hunger, homelessness, poverty, wars, etc.). All we need is to use our current brains in a rational manner, to transition away from capitalism to a socio-economic system that is actually rational. If we were to give it a name, it could be "anarcho-communism/socialism", "libertarian socialism", "Natural Law Resource Based Economy" (as described by Jacque Fresco/The Zeitgeist Movement), library socialism, etc.

    A socio-economic system that is based on the scientific method (not on abstract economic dogmas), where policies are based on what scientifically is best to do, where we transition ASAP to clean energies, where we design products so that our manufacturing practices are ecologically sustainable, where every piece of software and hardware are open source, where we have democracy at workplace, where we have economic democracy/equality, where we all have equal access to Earth's resources, where we collaborate instead of competing, where all unjustifiable hierarchies are abolished (and only justifiable ones stay), where there are no borders on Earth, etc.

  • Ziigmund

    The major problem with current Quantum computing is qubit coherence. I personally believe that we're a long way from being able to precisely detect non-gaussian entropy. Our understanding of superposition doesn't seem to be at the level we need too eliminate this "noise". Simply put computers are nothing if their not precise. And we are very far away from that with our current understanding of quantum mechanics in my opinion.

  • korncows1

    So thats why googles gathering ALL this information. My buddy found agraitums in deleted softwear that wanted to know toenail length of all its users

  • jameswalker199

    So long as the cyborg fusion age doesn't allow the ability to install mind viruses on humans that make them believe that distributing spam to other humans is to their benefit.

    By the way, have you heard of Nord VPN, Blue Apron, Skillshare, Brilliant.org, Crunchyroll, TunnelBear, or Casper Mattresses?

  • Chris Mason

    My god man. Get an image overhaul. You look like a typical boomer. Your graphics are dated. Your script needs a writer to help you sound more engaging. It’s a shame because you know your shit. Look at Brian Cox for example. Super smart and super likeable.

  • Helder De Almeida

    I saw today in a news paper online that Google just did supremacy in their quantum computer it said it would normally take 10.000 years on a normal computer.

  • Helder De Almeida

    Watch the Chinese and Russian they wil do anything to get their hands on any secrets about quantum computer. They're very dangerous country's.

  • Mechaghostman2

    We could have full molecule simulations in our video games, no longer requiring polygon modeling and thus we'd have super realistic graphics and environments. Oh man the possibilities!

  • Curry

    do you really think they’re gonna use quantum computing to enrich the healthcare system? truly asking, not being sarcastic

  • El Rick

    The first game on a quantum computers is gonna be so bad ass!! But then 15 years later its gonna look so stupid like Pong. I’m scared.

  • M PW

    For the 1000th time, the concept of “quantum” computing has NOTHING to do with the theory of quantum mechanics. It’s just a marketing term. It simply adds ONE bit to binary (trinary). It helps with SOME math processing speed but otherwise is useless to the average consumer. Please stop commenting on this like it’s an exciting breakthrough. It’s been around for decades.

  • Vince Hall

    Quantum Supremacy demonstrated by Google in September.
    Very cool stuff. I realise that this could be an epic revolution, especially when coupled with AI.

  • *Insert stupid serial number here.*

    Plot twist: the universe is a simulation run by quantum computers, and we're about to simulate universes and civilizations ourselves.

    Qception

  • Marlin Spiker

    Absolutely love how this guy presents the video. He explains things very clearly without talking down to the viewer, without hype and without trying to hold onto you with rapid fire gibberish that now seems to be hallmark of the 21st century education. Very refreshing.

  • Dave Boyer

    If Quantum Computing can be applied to show how to reverse Earth global warming realistically, that would be cool indeed.

  • AI fan

    'observing one qubit can reveal the state of its unobserved pair'. Well yes, but an important ommision here is that the act observing either particle in an entangled pair will determine the state of both. It's a bit like slamming your hand down on a spinning die that is one of an entangled pair. The outcome of your die will determine the outcome of its entangled sibling.

  • Stephen Hargreaves

    Despite the claims, I'm not convinced that quantum computing will become commonplace in your, or my lifetimes (and I guess we are of a similar age).

  • Rui Amaral

    All Quantum computing has been so far is a major public money grabbing scheme. So far all we have seen is people praising it's glory but tangible results are none. I believe that if we can make it work well it might serve us good but i just don't believe it will be this world changing era that some are proclaiming. The truth is i just hope we are not being fouled into sinking billions for something that may never leave the development status all together but if it does it won't be the first neither the last time this happens.

  • Etu Nimi

    ..VERY Naive approce on this Subject…When People Gives over the decision making etc..To AI/Quantum computers…They are reaching out to the Demons…How do "We" know that the End result is going to be a POSITIVE One..Because THEY SAY So..???

    How can Humans know They have Good intensions…NO WAY AT ALL…They Can Simulate an Outcome that Looks Good at the beginning(To Get the Peoples Trust)…BUT Ends Up in a Very Destructive Way…

    For excample a DRUG…VACCINE against some Disease..That as a Hidden Side effect Totally Lobotomices the Recipient…

    Even as a WANTED OUTCOME….Ordered by The Goverment (DEEP STATE)

    The Possible Horrorstories…Are LIMITLESS….

    But NO WORD…About THAT…From Mr."Already Lobotomized" Computer Guy ….!!!

  • George Alfert

    Chris you must address this recent news about Google achieving Quantum Supremacy. It's all over. Welcome to Skynet. All your base are belong to us!

  • Joe Chevy

    Wait till weaponized quantum computers can entangle with the proteins in you DNA and give you any afflictions from ANYWHERE on Earth, but that's just science fiction.

  • Slate Gray

    So, if or when what is going on in a cup of coffee or what’s going on with anything on a molecular level w unpredictable movement can be simulated then the future can be predicted!! Also, then then everything can be set up to the the exact desired results and literally control the world!!
    One of my theories: ancient technology or ancient records w the directions to build a quantum computer was discovered but now have to figure out how to work it. Or the math answer was discovered but still figuring out the which formula is most efficient. All of these quantum computer clouds storing all of our day to day info so it will be ready to simulate and predict future of all of us when the formula becomes efficient enough to run w it. That’s why the push and need for programmers is so imperative on order to get the work field eventually on the level it will take to teach this type of programming and the learners will be able to become skilled and productive in order for the competition to be fair in the markets. Programmers put out tools for programmers to become faster, faster than learning how to program. Programming will start changing faster than procedures a top world bank in the mortgage company do.

  • Stefan Gies

    Computing takes a quantum leap forward
    https://blog.google/technology/ai/computing-takes-quantum-leap-forward
    What our quantum computing milestone means:
    https://blog.google/perspectives/sundar-pichai/what-our-quantum-computing-milestone-means
    Quantum Supremacy Using a Programmable Superconducting Processor :
    https://ai.googleblog.com/2019/10/quantum-supremacy-using-programmable.html

  • Tanzanite TechNature

    Quantum computers are fake. They will spend all day saying its zero, and one at the same time !, but they will NEVER explain the "minimization function" where the magic happens, because that function does not exist. Investor BS.

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