The Persian empire rapidly expanded its borders from 550 BC, Med defeated the Babylonian, Lydian and Egyptian kingdoms and invaded their land. The conquests of Chiros and Darius included much of the world known for that day… Greeks living at the border of the empire could not be in trouble with the Persians; Almost all Greek cities in Anatolia were swallowed. Ionian city-states were now semi-independent structures connected to Babylon… BC In 512, Kyros’ successor, Darius, proceeded to Thrace. Crossing the Dardanelles, they were subjugated to the Thracian tribes. It was evident that the progress would put the Persians and the Greek homeland in conflict… The empire was still very dynamic and highly expansionist around 500 BC. On the other hand, the peoples he had dominated also tended to revolt to that degree. Because it was quite difficult to hold an entire building with such an area with the same authority…. It was expected and BC. In 499, the King of Miletus pulled the rebellion flag. Other Ionian cities also overthrew the kings that were appointed by the Persian Palace, following Miletus, and switched to democracy. This was a revolt … Athens and Eretria from the main Greek country supported the rebellion… The Persian empire was slow to act. Athens and Eretria to support Ionian Uprising He sent a force of 25 triremes to the Ionian coast. These forces combined with the Ionian forces were led by Aristagoras, They walked to Sard, the region’s Persian Governor. Persian forces in the city were raided. The city governor went on to defend. Hearing that the city had come to the aid, the Ionian forces had to retreat… When the troops arrived in Ephesus, they were caught by the army behind them. The dispirited and tired forces were inevitably a weak opponent for the Persian army. Many people, including Eretrian General Eualcides, were killed in battle…. Ions withdraw in their city to continue the war Athenians and Eratrians managed to escape to the ships and returned to Greece. The rebellion started by the ions could only be suppressed in 1993. Emperor Darius, after the uprising, to punish both Athens and Eretria, more precisely to ensure that City States do not provoke Ions in Anatolia again he also started planning to eliminate the threat from Greece to the Empire…. The divided political structure of Ancient Greece, which consisted of many city states, Certainly it made Greece an easy prey for Darius I… He sent Mardonius, the son-in-law of Darius, to the west with a navy. Mardonius’ task was to subjugate Thrace again. Thrace was taken under Persian rule in 513 BC, but it was out of Persian influence during the Ionian Uprising. Mardonius succeeded in making Macedonia a country under the Persian Empire. In the continuation of the expedition, the navy of Mardonius At the bay of Aynoroz Peninsula to go to Athens He suffered heavy losses in a storm where he was caught. Therefore, the expedition is halfway through… The following year, Darius explicitly revealed his intent and sent envoys to all Greek city-states. and asked them to submit to their will and management. Most of the others, except Athens and Sparta, bowed. Athens and Sparta executed envoys…. The Spartans and Athenians went too far… According to the Babylonian Palace, there must have been a punishment for what he did… In 490 BC, a second navy and army were sent over Greece for an overseas expedition. These forces were to be commanded by a Med admiral, Datis and General Artaphernes, nephew of Darius I. The aims of the campaign are to add the Cyclades to the Persian domain, Receiving Naxos who successfully resisted under the Persian siege just before the Ionian Uprising and then to Greece to connect or take Athens and Eretria to the Persian Palace. The first target of the Navy was the island of Rhodes, but the siege did not end as desired, the island could not be taken. Subsequently, in the middle of summer, Eğriboz Island offshore was reached by submitting to the Naxos and Delos islands. Karystos on the island was taken. The expedition was going smoothly and the acquisition of the islands for the next voyage to the Greek Peninsula It was of a nature that would constitute a step. After ensuring the security of the places taken, Eretria, the first important target of the expedition, was moved. The Persian army was landed in three different regions to advance on Eretria. The sieges started violent attacks on the city walls. According to Herodotus, the conflicts were extremely harsh and caused serious losses for both sides. However, at the dawn of the seventh day, Eretria’s two leading citizens opened their gates to the Persian forces. Persian forces entering the city looted the city and burned temples and sanctuaries to avenge the city of Sard, which was burnt at the beginning of the Ionian Uprising. People suffered great pain… Either they tasted death or were deported to lands they didn’t know… Then the navy, which reloaded the army, proceeded south of Attica to attack Athens. There was another place to take revenge… The Navy is 40 km from Athens. from Marathon Bay BC. On August 490, he launched a soldier. This was a suitable spot for both supply and cavalry maneuvers. Athens Army marched to Marathon Plain under command of Kallimakhos and to prevent the Persian Army from moving into the mainland. he held two exits of the plain in the direction of Athens. Before leaving the city, the Athenians sent news to Sparta, the only city-state likely to send them aid. Sparta was at a time when fighting was forbidden. According to their traditions, they could not fight at the Carneia Festival. Only after the birth of the next full moon could they go to war. There were still days for him… The Athenians had to keep their opponent away from the passages until full. The only good development at that time is; the small city-state Platea sent an aid force of 1,000 hoplits to Athens…. The Persian and Athenian armies camped on the Marathon Plain and remained inactive for five days. The right of the Athens camp was very close to the swamp. The other wing was protected by a set of tree piles. Every day that goes without war in this way, in a way it was bringing Sparta’s support closer and the flowing time was in favor of the Athens forces… Athenians consisted of an average of 10,000 people with supplements. They used all their resources to extract this army … An important part of the army consisted of long spear hoplites, which we call heavy infantry. The rest were light infantry units. If the Persian army eliminated many exaggerations, it consisted of 25,000 infantrymen and 1,000 cavalrymen. This was the number of soldiers taken to the beach. Some of the troops were still on the ships…. Persian infantry are soldiers from various ethnic groups. This made the organization troubled. Consisting of the most powerful infantry group Persian and Saka soldiers and the group that was at the center of the army in battle. The palace guards, called immortals, used swords, short spears, straw shields, and long daggers. Metal armor was the exception in the army, and leather combat vests were often used. The purpose of the Persians; It was a fake extraction from this place, which was considered to be far from Athens, and attracted Athenians here. Then they will leave a screening union on the beach and they would take the empty Athens, wandering from behind with the navy. Of course, the Greeks did not know about this… The Greek army, on the other hand, was ruled by a military assembly of ten generals and Kallimakhos. The most experienced of these commanders was Miltiades…. Miltiades persuaded the warfare assembly to attack on the 6th day of the wait. The commander understood the Persian plan and realized that the main enemy was waiting on the ships. Of course, Artaphernes’ superstitioned the cavalry to ships to take Athens. It was one of the things that encouraged Miltiades to attack. The Athenians, who would normally be waiting for Sparta help, they decided to attack on the situation…. Miltiades create four lines for tribal commanders in the center, he ordered the other forces on their wings to form eight lines. Normally a hoplit flange consisted of 8 lines. The reason for the weakness of the center; the military was to line up along the Persian lines. Miltiades, who had to compromise from somewhere, had applied such a tactic to avoid being surrounded by edges. The Greek commander immediately ordered an assault and quickly trooped his troops. There were about 1.5 km between the two armies. Normally Greek soldiers would attack very slowly, but for the first time they had so many archers. In order to both get rid of them and not allow the opponent to prepare heavily armored hoplites had to run the last 300 meters… Herodotus says that for the first time in history, a Hellenic army was running and attacked. The Battle of the Marathon Plain was the battle of the first with everything … Athenians pass the rain of arrows, where tolga, armor and wide shields protect They attacked Persian lines. In the first moments when he came to his chest, his long spears, They took great advantage of the ability to use Persian weapons beyond their scope. In the Persian ranks, the Athenians are not affected by the arrow rain, There was a panic when he came over them without losing anything from the attack speed. The effect of this panic led to the dissolution of the ranks. The Athens wing forces advanced rapidly, pressing the Persian wings backwards. While the Persian wings are melting, the main strong part is the center where Persians and Saka are, began to throw back the weak Greek center. Meanwhile, with the right wing troops commanded by Kallimakhus Platea soldiers who were fighting under his left wing under his command, Instead of watching the escaped Persians, they rushed behind the Persian center and attacked, moving from two wings. Miltiades immediately intervened in the center. He immediately said not to retreat to the center and to return to the square and fight. When the wings were squeezed from the side and the center started to resist, the center of the Persian army began to dissolve. Soldiers, who were in trouble, rushed towards the beach. Some Persian soldiers, who did not know the region, fled in the direction of the swamp. The swamp absorbed them and drowned them… Hellenes watching Persian soldiers trying to escape to the ships, They tried to capture the ships on the beach and set them on fire. The vast majority of the ships of the Persian Navy received troops and sailed on time but this was not able to compensate for the defeat … The winner of the war was Athens… Persians, When the Athenians were tired, they thought they would be able to land in Athens with at least the landing troops. The Athenians, who managed to defeat and beat their opponents, now had to save their cities. It was necessary to reach the city as soon as possible …. Commander Miltiades left some of the troops on the plain. He ordered the rest to run towards the city … The tired Athenians started to leave everything running and covered the distance of 40 km on foot in one day. When they arrived in the city, they found their families drawn to the mountains. They immediately went down to the bay and looked around. The Persian navy had not arrived yet. The Athenians had arrived at the destination before Datis’s navy … The city was safe now … Hearing that the Greeks have arrived and defended their city, Datis said, He decided to end the campaign and sailed towards Western Anatolia… The Persian and Greek struggle ended up for the time being until the next encounter… Marathon Run at the Olympics, this is done by referring to the run of the Athens army of that day from the Marathon plain to the city. Today, this event has turned into a false myth. This myth is to convey the news of Runner Pheidippides’ victory right after the battle, He ran and ran between Marathon and Athens, “Victory is ours!” It is as if he fell and died immediately after he said it. The truth of the matter is as we have just mentioned. In fact, Pheidippides is the runner sent to Sparta for help. It is told that he was there to inform the Persian army It covered a distance of 220 km from Athens to Sparta in one day…. If we come to the Spartans, they immediately arrived in the area for help after the full moon …
But what they saw when they arrived at the city was the celebration of victory of the Athenians.